Experiment in Rome Hopes to Find “Dark Photons” and A Fifth Fundamental Force of The Universe

With all our science experiments, big machines, and monumental discoveries, it’s easy to forget that we, as a species, are still pretty dumb.  Not in a “we were so focused on if we could, we never stopped to think if we should!” type of way (though that’s probably true as well), just in terms of sheer metrics: cold, dispassionate, void-of-opinion numbers. Here’s a quote from Dr Mauro Raggi, from Sapienza University in Rome, that illustrates the numerical quality of our dumbness pretty nicely:

“At the moment, we don’t know what more than 90% of the universe is made of.”

Yep. All the math we have to explain how the universe works does so quite nicely, except for one little, teeny-tiny, problem. The math only accounts for 4% of the universe. The other 96% of the observable universe is just sort of invisible. It’s referred to as the “dark sector” of the universe, and that’s what Dr Raggi and other scientists at the National Institute for Nuclear Physics are trying to observe. The dark sector is made up of dark matter and dark energy, and it’s referred to as “dark” because it’s never actually been detected, it’s only been predicted by equations which have, so far, been pretty spot-on.

The universe in mostly dark matter.

Yep, no idea what most of that nonsense is up there.

According to the Guardian, scientists at the National Institute for Nuclear Physics are about to flip the on-switch of a machine that will hopefully give a glimpse into the illusive and, as of yet, only mathematically predicted “dark sector” that makes up 96% of the universe. The machine is called PADME, an acronym for Positron Annihilation into Dark Matter Experiment, which is such a great name that they should have foregone the acronym entirely.

If successful, this experiment would change modern physics and our understanding of the universe. According to Dr Raggi:

“If we find this force it will completely change the paradigm we have now. It would open up a new world and help us to understand the particles and forces that compose the dark sector.”

Along with proving the existence of dark matter, they say there’s a chance, albeit a remote chance, that such experiments could find a fifth fundamental force of the universe which dictates how dark matter behaves. It’s called the “dark force,” because for every of a name like Photon Annihilation into Dark Matter Experiment there’s a real stinker to balance it out.

So far we know of four fundamental forces of nature: the electromagnetic force, gravity, the strong force, and the weak force. The electromagnetic force refers to electrons behave and, consequently, magnetism and electricity. The strong force binds the nucleus of atoms together, weak force is observed in radiation, and gravity is slowly crushing us all. The dark force would add another to that list, but it’s complete speculation whether it’s even a reasonable thing to look for.

PADME will blast a stream of positrons—a form of antimatter—at a sheet of diamond. When the positrons hit the diamond sheet they will immediately collide with electrons and explode in a faint flash of light. If the team is correct, the amount of energy released will occasionally be lower than normal, this would be due to “dark photons” being created by the hypothesized “dark force.”

Bryan McKinnon, a research fellow at Glasgow University is part of a separate team searching for the mysterious dark sector. He says:

“It would definitely be a huge thing in physics if some evidence of a dark sector was found. Right now, it’s labelled as such because it’s the stuff we don’t understand. If a door can be opened, what will come out? That’s guesswork right now.”


The dark photon, if it exists, is effectively a portal. It lets us peer into the dark sector to see what is happening. It won’t open the floodgates, but it will allow us to have a little look.”


You know it’s a good time when the portal-talk starts.

It’s a good time for the weird side of the universe. Last week scientists successfully induced chemical changes in antimatter for the first time, and now people are about to start shooting antimatter beams at diamonds hoping to open portals to a dark sector. Things are getting weird, and at this rate, there’s a non-trivial probability that we all ascend as cosmic god-sorcerers in the not-so-distant future. There’s a better chance that we’ll just do some new and improved math, though.


When I think of myself and my relation to the universe, I envision that viral astrophysicist’s video of a journey from face to space. The three minute footage begins on a woman’s face. It then continuously zooms out, revealing a shot of the universe, one billion light years away from Earth.

The purpose of the video is  to visually explain the different scales of the universe. It certainly makes me feel small in an infinite universe.


Picatrix: The mysterious book shows how to “collect energy from the universe”

The mysteries of the Picatrix – the ancient Arabic text considered to be the ultimate magical handbook.

Download link of an PDF version of the translated Picatrix at the end of the article

It is referred to as the Picatrix, the four-hundred-page book containing comprehensive details of magic and astrology which explains to the reader how to create magical statues, talismans and even entire cities using the power of astrology. While the book is considered to be rather obscure today, it has enjoyed vogues of enormous popularity since the 11th century.

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Four of the Oldest Galaxies in the Universe Discovered Right Next Door

Space is big. It’s incredible that no one’s ever written that sentence before, right? It goes without saying that space is the biggest possible thing, the awe-inspiring majesty of it sort of cheapened by even being described that way. Why say it in the first place? Well, when something is unreasonably large, the chances of stumbling upon a specific thing are very very slim. The phrase “finding a needle in a haystack” comes to mind, but when dealing with the vastness of the universe it’s more like finding a needle in 12 million haystacks, and even that falls a good deal short. The needle in this case, four needles to be precise, are four of the oldest galaxies in the visible universe. It turns out they’re our neighbors, orbiting our very own galaxy, the Milky Way.

This is according to a paper published in the Astrophysical Journal by scientists from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and the Institute for Computational Cosmology at Durham University. They analyzed what’s called the “luminosity function” of galaxies around the Milky Way and the nearby Andromeda galaxy. The luminosity function of a galaxy is how bright it is, and analyzing it can give scientists a clue as to when the galaxies were formed. They found four dwarf galaxies in orbit around the Milky Way that were formed soon after the big bang, when the rules of the game were entirely different.


The history of the universe is long and strange. After the big bang there was a period of 380,000 years where the universe was rippling with all of the expelled energy of whatever happened back then. Then it began to cool off in a period known as the “cosmic dark age” which lasted for 100 million years, which is hardly the blink of an eye when looking at the total timeline of the universe. For context, sharks, as a species, have been swimming around earth for 400 million years. It was during this cosmic dark age that the first galaxies were formed. These galaxies emitted high-intensity radiation that ionized the hydrogen molecules and made it impossible for them to cool and form new stars and galaxies, hence the “dark age.”

Later, when things finally settled down hundreds of million years later, a period known as the “reionisation” occurred which allowed new, brighter galaxies to form. This is how the luminosity function of galaxies help scientists determine their age.

History of the universe

Timeline of galaxy formation from the big bang to now.

The four galaxies discovered around the Milky Way—named Segue-1, Bootes I, Tucana II and Ursa Major I—are small and dense and dim. They also have properties totally unlike our own. According to Dr Carlos Frenk, an author of the paper:

If you go and examine these primitive galaxies, you should find bizarre things about them. Being the first ones, they should have properties that are unique to them.

Lead author Dr Sownak Bose elaborated:

One could think that, maybe some of these pre-reionisation galaxies are more compact than their counterparts that formed afterwards. They were formed at a time when the Universe was much denser, because the Universe was smaller.

Remember that needle in the haystack analogy? It’s not entirely accurate. In fact it may be more like 12 million needles stuffed into a single stack of hay. The reason that these galaxies were discovered is due to that fact that they’re so close. These dwarf galaxies are small and dim enough that there could be any number of these dark age galaxies in the universe, and scientists say they could outnumber the modern galaxies like our own Milky Way. It’s just another example of the more we learn about space, the less we know for sure.

Chandra Space Telescope: Revealing the Invisible Universe

The Chandra X-Ray Observatory is a NASA telescope that looks at black holes, quasars, supernovas, and the like – all sources of high energy in the universe. It shows a side of the cosmos that is invisible to the human […]

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Aliens May Well Exist in a Parallel Universe, New Studies Find

Should the search for alien life in our universe come up empty-handed, it might be worth checking in on a neighboring universe instead.

According to a new pair of studies in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, there’s a decent chance that life-fostering planets could exist in a parallel universe — even if that universe were being torn apart by dark energy.

The idea that our universe is just one of many, perhaps infinite, other universes is known as the multiverse theory.

Continue reading Aliens May Well Exist in a Parallel Universe, New Studies Find at Alien UFO Sightings.

Scientists Propose a ‘Mirror Universe’ Where Time Moves Backwards

Two separate teams of physicists have been examining the flow of time in the Universe, and they’ve proposed that some 14 billion years ago, the Big Bang could have given rise to a second, inverse mirror universe where time moves in the opposite direction: it moves backwards, not forwards.

Basically, if we were looking at the mirror universe, we would see time moving from the future to the past, but from the perspective of that universe, it would look like our time was moving backwards, not forwards, the researchers suggest.

Continue reading Scientists Propose a ‘Mirror Universe’ Where Time Moves Backwards at Mysterious Times.

A Coin Discovered From A Parallel Universe Found In Our Timeline

Parallel universes, or multiverse, is where an infinite number of universes can coexist with our run .. and while we are living our lives simultaneously, we, in another universe is doing something else .

Now this is a tell that comes from the multiverse,
where a construction site in Mexico, while they were working they stumbled upon a bizarre-looking coin.

They took this coin to the University to have it analyzed..

Continue reading A Coin Discovered From A Parallel Universe Found In Our Timeline at Mysterious Times.

Freeman Dyson Proposes “Noah’s Ark Eggs” to Seed Life Throughout the Universe

94-year-old mathematician and theoretical physicist Freeman Dyson is the mind behind many groundbreaking mathematical concepts and theoretical technologies related to harnessing the potential of outer space. Dyson proposed the Dyson tree, a genetically-engineered plant capable of growing inside a comet, producing a breathable atmosphere and allowing humanity to transform comets into natural space stations. Dyson is perhaps more famous for his Dyson sphere concept, a hypothetical megastructure which completely surrounds stars, harnessing 100% of its radiant energy. Such a structure was suspected in the strange saga of Tabby’s Star which played out throughout 2016 and 2017.

Still kickin out the jams at 94.

Still kickin’ out the jams at 94.

Dyson is back in the news this year with a new proposed technology the English-born visionary believes could seed life throughout the universe. Dyson calls his idea the “Noah’s Ark Egg” and describes it as a “way of making space colonies highly cost-effective.” In an interview with influential science fiction author Neal Stephenson and Robbert Dijkgraaf, Director of the theoretical research center Institute for Advanced Study, Dyson outlined his vision for sending the eggs out into the cosmos in order to spread the Earth’s biodiversity to distant exoplanets and speed up the colonization process:

The Noah’s Ark Egg is an object looking like an ostrich egg, a few kilograms in weight. But instead of having a single bird inside, it has embryos — a whole planet’s worth of species of microbes and animals and plants, each represented by one embryo. It’s programmed then to grow into a complete planet’s worth of life. So it will cost only a few million dollars for the egg and the launch, but you could have about 1,000 human beings and all the life support, and all the different kinds of plants and animals for surviving. The cost per person is only a few thousand dollars, and it could enlarge the role of life in the universe at an amazingly fast speed.

Dyson says the technology to design these “eggs” may only be a hundred years away or so, but that many advances in embryology and robotics are needed before the eggs could be developed.

As far-fetched as the idea might sound, more and more evidence points to the idea that life on Earth may have come from space. It’s no stretch, then, to assume that it might also work the other way. Could humans seed life throughout the universe using technologies similar to Dyson’s proposed Noah’s Ark Eggs? It makes me wonder: what if one of these eggs went through a wormhole in the future and is caught in a causal loop? Could we have seeded life on Earth ourselves from the future as our planet dies around us? Has this all happened before and will it all happen again?

Nah, probably not. We all know a wizard in the sky made us with his powerful magic. Now close your eyes and thank him for your Hamburger Helper before he sends down more cancer to punish us.

How humans might outlive Earth, the sun…and even the universe

Nuclear war. Runaway climate change. A global pandemic. Today our world faces all manner of existential threats. But scary possibilities like these are nothing compared to what astronomers say lies in store for Earth. Our planet’s ultimate destiny is to be baked, blasted, and eventually disintegrated.

There’s nothing we can do to prevent this cataclysm. Yet according to scientists who study the far future, including Yale University astronomer Gregory Laughlin, the prospect for life is, oddly, rather bright.

Continue reading How humans might outlive Earth, the sun…and even the universe at Alien UFO Sightings.